Heart transplant is an option for patients who suffer from end stage heart failure. The Human Organ Transplant Act (HOTA) in Singapore has expanded the pool of potential heart donors.
In severe cases of mitral valve abnormalities, mitral valve surgery might be necessary to repair, or even replace the valve.
Options to manage heart failure include medications, VAD implantations, heart bypass surgery, heart valve surgery or heart transplant.
Swollen feet and swollen ankles could be a sign of heart valve disease as the blood flow through the heart to the body is inhibited, leading to fluid build-up.
Cardiothoracic surgeons use surgical procedures such as keyhole surgery, lobectomy and open lobectomy (thoracotomy) to remove cancer from the lung.
Chest X-rays and Computerised Tomography (CT) scans are some of the tests done to diagnose lung cancer. If a tumour is detected, a biopsy will ascertain the type of cancer and its stage.
A chronic cough, coughing up blood, a hoarse voice, chest pains and fatigue could be symptoms of late-stage lung cancer.