In severe cases of mitral valve abnormalities, mitral valve surgery might be necessary to repair, or even replace the valve.
Swollen feet and swollen ankles could be a sign of heart valve disease as the blood flow through the heart to the body is inhibited, leading to fluid build-up.
Cardiothoracic surgeons use surgical procedures such as keyhole surgery, lobectomy and open lobectomy (thoracotomy) to remove cancer from the lung.
Chest X-rays and Computerised Tomography (CT) scans are some of the tests done to diagnose lung cancer. If a tumour is detected, a biopsy will ascertain the type of cancer and its stage.
A chronic cough, coughing up blood, a hoarse voice, chest pains and fatigue could be symptoms of late-stage lung cancer.